Team Spirit: Benefits of Organized Sports in Adolescence

Adolescence is a tumultuous time. Children have to adjust to their changing bodies, develop a unique, individual identity separate from their parents, and learn about the complexities of life and the world around them. Physical activity is proven to have many mental health benefits for teenagers, including a positive impact on well-being, resilience, and emotional functioning (Hale et al., 2021). A major avenue through which adolescents engage in physical activity is organized sports. Besides the obvious positive effects on physical health, organized sports can provide teens with a sense of peer belonging, help them develop a positive self-concept, and teach discipline. Thus, organized sports can help children master developmental tasks of adolescence and put them on a path towards becoming successful adults.

Peer Belonging: During adolescence, kids must step out from the confines of their immediate family and develop their sense of self within a group of peers. A sense of belonging within a group of friends or teammates helps inspire feelings of competence and provides community and support from peers who are going through similar experiences. Extracurriculars are the common ground on which teenagers can bond. They provide access to diverse groups of people from different racial backgrounds, ages, and even school systems. 

Among the long list of extracurriculars, team sports provide the most robust array of mental health and social benefits (Oberle et al., 2019). While improving physical fitness and strength, teenagers in sports have opportunities to take on leadership roles and responsibilities that stretch their expanding physical, emotional, and intellectual abilities. Team sports provide opportunities to practice social and communication skills as teens work towards a common goal (Oberle et al., 2019). These opportunities foster bonding and a sense of peer belonging which explains why team sports have greater mental health benefits than individually oriented sports and extracurriculars (Oberle et al., 2019). Researchers found that consistent participation in extracurricular activities decreased adolescents’ proportion of risk-taking friends and predicted having a higher proportion of peers who value academic achievement and have strong educational goals (Oberle et al., 2019).

Positive Self-Concept: Adolescence is a time of intense change during which children work through questions about independence, identity, and their place in the world. Their changing bodies can induce intense insecurity and hyperfocus on comparing themselves and how they look to those around them. Sports help teens reorient how they think about their bodies. Instead of focusing on what they see as different, weird, or embarrassing, they are encouraged to focus on their strengths and ability to contribute positively to a team goal. Feelings of competence also come from seeing themselves acquire new physical skills through practice and hard work. Getting leadership opportunities through sports also gives teens a sense of responsibility, accountability, and purpose. These opportunities are crucial for the development of positive identity and confidence as well as navigating questions of individual identity and independence (Hale et al., 2021; Oberle et al., 2019; Bruner et al., 2017).

During adolescence, kids practice skills that they will need for the rest of their adult lives. Sports in middle school and high school are rich with important character-building experiences. Organized sports provide opportunities to develop resilience and self-reflection, as well as improve time management and organizational skills while working on a team. These are all skills they will need to be successful in college, the workplace, and when facing general life stressors. 

Moral Development: Sports provide structure and positive role models, through coaches and peers, that teach them how to be a better person, teammate, and competitor (Agans et al., 2018). Researchers found that peers who put the team and their teammates before personal ambition promoted honesty, selflessness, and diligence in others (Gough, 2013). It is important that coaches promote these qualities in their athletes and that teens have the opportunity to interact with teammates who encourage them to adopt these qualities. Morality is a key aspect of character development and applies to many facets of life. Sports present athletes with many chances to establish values which guide their behavior, such as deciding whether to cheat in order to win or work hard and possibly lose with integrity. These are important character-building opportunities for teens. Repeated exposure to these experiences, coupled with guidance from coaches, can solidify their moral code (Gough, 2013). As is the case with physical skills, repeated practice making morally good decisions will become second nature and carry over into adulthood. Consistency and focus are key to creating these “moral habits” (Gough, 2013). Such discipline becomes ingrained in athletes and is a crucial skill to have when deciding between what is right and what is easy.

Resilience: Team sports also provide opportunities for children to face challenges and failure in a safe environment. Working through challenges and the emotions that accompany them, encourages resilience and perseverance that will help teens take on life’s uncertainties and “bounce back from adversity” (Luthans, 2002 in Michael, 2021). Approaching success and failure as a team promotes collective, team resilience which helps adolescents work through difficult emotions with the support of their peers, coaches, and trusted adults (Michael, 2021). The individual resilience that they gain from this experience can be applied both on and off the field (Michael, 2021). This skill also comes from the self-reflection and self-awareness that is ingrained in athletes during practice (Gough, 2013). They must acknowledge where they can improve and systematically work towards getting better. Instead of giving up and allowing failure to define them, athletes must move past the temporary set back and see how they can adapt and overcome in order to succeed next time. This increases feelings of agency, competency, and perseverance in the face of adversity.

Time Management & Life Skills: It is no secret that adolescents are juggling a lot. From friendships to school-work to college applications, being a middle schooler or high schooler is a stressful time. Sports have been proven to help teens develop life skills, such as goal setting, time management, problem solving, and decision making which can make balancing these responsibilities less overwhelming. In fact, students who participate in sports report that they gain these skills at a greater level and speed compared to their peers who are not involved in sports (Cronin & Allen, 2018). These skills will help teens successfully manage their increasing responsibilities in college and beyond.

Conclusion: During adolescence, children go through intense physical, emotional, and cognitive changes, which makes this a stressful and vulnerable time. Participating in sports can help buffer the stresses of adolescence by helping teens develop a sense of competence and by exposing them to a group of positive role models that can support them through this transitional period. Team sports foster resilience in the face of failure, self-discipline, and a strong sense of morality. These and other benefits that come from participating in organized sports can help create the foundation for a successful life of independence and achievement.

References

Agans, J. P., Su, S., & Ettekal, A. V. (2018). Peer motivational climate and character development: Testing a practitioner‐developed youth sport model. Journal of Adolescence62(1), 108–115. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.adolescence.2017.11.008

Bruner, M. W., Balish, S. M., Forrest, C., Brown, S., Webber, K., Gray, E., McGuckin, M., Keats, M. R., Rehman, L., & Shields, C. A. (2017). Ties That Bond: Youth Sport as a Vehicle for Social Identity and Positive Youth Development. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport88(2), 209–214. https://doi.org/10.1080/02701367.2017.1296100

Cronin, L. D., & Allen, J. (2018). Examining the relationships among the coaching climate, life skills development and well-being in sport. International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching13(6), 815–827. https://doi.org/10.1177/1747954118787949

Gough, R. W. (2013). A Practical Strategy for Emphasizing Character Development in Sport and Physical Education. Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance69(2), 18–20. https://doi.org/10.1080/07303084.1998.10605063

Hale, G. E., Colquhoun, L., Lancastle, D., Lewis, N., & Tyson, P. J. (2021). Review: Physical activity interventions for the mental health and well‐being of adolescents – a systematic review. Child and Adolescent Mental Health26(4), 357–368. https://doi.org/10.1111/camh.12485

Michael, M. A. (2021). Developing Collective Resilience in Teens Through Team Sports. 8.

Oberle, E., Ji, X. R., Guhn, M., Schonert-Reichl, K. A., & Gadermann, A. M. (2019). Benefits of Extracurricular Participation in Early Adolescence: Associations with Peer Belonging and Mental Health. Journal of Youth and Adolescence48(11), 2255–2270. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10964-019-01110-2

Acknowledgments 

This blog post was prepared with the help of Andie Stallman, a graduate student at Tufts University’s Eliot-Pearson Department of Child Study and Human Development who is concentrating in Clinical and Developmental Health and Psychology. A former collegiate athlete on the Tufts University Field Hockey team, Andie is passionate about finding ways to make sports and exercise more accessible, so that everyone can enjoy the numerous benefits of physical activity. Andie is particularly interested in developmental psychopathology, sibling relationships, and experiences of trauma. She plans to pursue a Ph.D. in clinical psychology to help children and families develop skills that will enable them to confidently navigate life’s hardships and achieve their individual goals.

How to Talk to Kids about War

Many of us have been affected by the current events in Ukraine.  As adults, we not only have to process these events ourselves but simultaneously figure out how to talk about it with the children in our lives.  Children who have been directly affected by war will need psychological support far beyond the scope of this article.  We wanted to focus on how to talk to children who have been exposed to war second-hand, for example via news, social media, family or peer connections. 

In this situation, the first thing to remember is that kids are resilient.  Most children who are exposed to war second-hand will be able to process this information without significant negative emotional impact.  Having said that, when talking to children about a topic as difficult as war, adults should consider the child’s individual characteristics.  In this article, we will examine how children understand the concept of war and discuss what to consider when talking to children about this difficult topic.

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Children and Screens During COVID-19

Even before the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic, children’s screen use was a point of concern for many caregivers and professionals alike. Children have watched T.V for decades now, and with the introduction of computers and laptops, followed by smartphones, tablets, and e-readers, children are being introduced to screens at younger and younger ages and relying on screens in their daily lives more and more. Parents and professionals have been asking questions for years about how much time children should spend on screens. In addition, they have been concerned about the content and its influence on children, amongst other concerns.

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The COVID-19 Pandemic: What Has Been Difficult for Children and How They Are Adapting to Change

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It has been over a year now since the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic. While the world continues to adapt to the changes brought on by COVID-19, it is important to acknowledge the ways in which children have been affected specifically.

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Children’s 3 Basic Psychological Needs and the COVID-19 Pandemic

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The COVID-19 pandemic has affected the ways in which children around the world are learning, playing, and interacting.

Understandably, parents have felt worried and uncertain about their children’s physical safety, social isolation, and academic progress in school. 

Aside from physical and academic needs, children have basic psychological needs that are essential to their well-being.

When these needs are met, children can continue to grow and thrive, even during times of change and disruption.

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Twice-Exceptional Children: Meeting Their Educational Needs

In recent weeks, the only constant has seemed to be that there is no normal. Every day we are inundated with reports and numbers and projections that do little to quell the collective anxiety we are feeling. Parents, in particular, are struggling to balance suddenly having to homeschool their children in addition to keeping up with whatever demands their work requires. It can be hard to see past the immediate uncertainty and fear, but once we do, we find that much can be learned from this situation about our children, how they learn, and how to educate them most effectively. Remote learning opens up new possibilities for individualizing education.  Individualizing education, in turn, allows us to encourage curiosity, internal motivation and learning beyond studying for tests. One population in particular that can benefit from this kind of individualized approach to learning are twice-exceptional children.

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Twice-Exceptional Children: Why Making Friends Is Hard and How to Support Them

“I want to know: how do I compare in the world of 12-year-olds? How many people in the world are there with a personality like me? Where do I fit in?”

All children need connections in order to thrive. Learning to establish and maintain friendships is a crucial part of every child’s development. Sharing, turn-taking, trusting, communicating, and compromising are some of the vital skills children practice while interacting with peers. Although for some children acquiring these skills comes naturally and making friends is easy, others struggle to find and keep friends. Twice-exceptional children—because of both components of their exceptionality—often have difficulty finding a peer group and maintaining friendships.

Twice-exceptional children are children who are identified as being gifted while also having a disability. While “disability” is not the ideal word, it is the word used by schools and other agencies and, for sake of consistency, will be used here. The disability could be a learning, emotional, physical, sensory, and/or developmental disability (The Twice-Exceptional Dilemma, 2006). Dyslexia, ADHD, Autism Spectrum Disorder, and Generalized Anxiety Disorder are just some examples of disabilities that impact a child’s functioning.

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Twice-Exceptional Children: Who They Are and Why We Need to Talk About Them

Is my child gifted? Is my child delayed? What is my child?”

Gifted and ADHD, how can it be both?“

These, and similar questions were asked by parents of children who were eventually identified as twice-exceptional.

Twice-exceptional children are a misunderstood and under-identified group of children. Many educators, professionals, and parents are not familiar with this term and do not understand the challenges and experiences of these children. It “can feel so overwhelming that you do not know where to start,” stated a parent of several twice-exceptional children. The first step in helping this group of children is to understand what it means to be twice-exceptional.

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Anger in Children: What It Is and When We Should Worry about It

My child will not turn the tablet off when asked – even after ample warnings about the amount of time left to use it. When I finally have to take it away, my child screams and starts throwing books and toys. It’s not uncommon for me to be hit and told that I’m being completely unfair. I’m so tired of having this fight over and over again.

My student will not transition from free play to the class meeting on the rug without an argument. When I try to reason with them, I get yelled at in response and the rest of the class gets riled up. I can’t go the rest of the school year like this.

Parents, teachers, and caregivers sometimes find themselves in these types of situations. Something comes up that angers a child, and despite the earnest efforts of the adult, the child appears to become more and more consumed by their feelings of anger until the situation gets out of control.  Ultimately, the situation is upsetting and frustrating not only for the child, but for the adult as well.

What is anger?

“Anger is a natural emotion that alerts us when something has violated the natural order of how we think things should go (1).”  Not only is it normal to feel anger, but it is one of our oldest and most primitive emotions. It’s hardwired in our brain from millions of years ago. Our prehistoric ancestors became angry whenever they felt threatened or disadvantaged. This served as a survival technique and gave our ancestors the motivation and drive to compete for food and mates. While we may no longer become angry to compete for a piece of meat (thank you, grocery stores), our brains still can’t stand being treated unfairly (9).

When we feel threatened, the part of the brain that controls our emotions, called the amygdala, is responsible for sounding an alarm. The amygdala is incredibly speedy at this responsibility – as little as a quarter of a second kind of speedy. It sends signals to other parts of the brain to prepare our body for action. Our heart and breathing rates increase, muscles tense up, body temperature and blood pressure rise. Stress hormones are released into our bloodstream, and blood flows to our limbs and extremities to prepare for physical action – our bodies are ready to fight (1)(4).

Nowadays, most times we don’t need to physically fight someone off when we’re angry. For example, when someone cuts you off in traffic and gets to go through a yellow light while you have to stop at the line as the light turns red, you become angry at the driver of the other car. You might want to scream, or even ram your car into theirs. Thankfully, split seconds after the amygdala sounds the alarm, the prefrontal cortex gets activated as well. The prefrontal cortex is the part of the brain that controls judgment and reasoning, and is responsible for determining how to respond to the triggering event that was recognized by the amygdala. This entire neurological response takes less than two seconds (3). Your prefrontal cortex tells you to take a deep breath, let it go, and keep driving.

If anger is normal, when does it become problematic?

The emotion of anger is present in human beings since infancy. Research shows that infants begin expressing anger during the last half of their first year due to the maturation of their cognitive abilities (9). Babies can become frustrated when an adult intervenes in an activity they are trying to do themselves, or when a favorite toy or object is taken away from them.  At ages 3 and 4, having to share toys and personal space is a source of frustration.  Increased expectations in kindergarten can result in anger (6).

As we explained earlier, our brains alert us when there is something to be angry about, then figure out how to respond to that trigger. In short, our brains are wired to react to an event before determining the sensibility and consequences of our actions. Learning to respond to our feelings of anger appropriately is a skill that has to be learned, not something we’re born knowing how to do. Thus, when babies get angry they respond by screaming and crying, and we have to do the anger management work for them. All through the toddler and preschool years, children are learning to manage their emotions (including anger) in socially acceptable ways. We help young children develop this skill by encouraging them to use their words, helping them identify their emotions, and providing them with strategies such as counting to 10 when angry.

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